Christian Anthropology & Human Origins

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    Dembski, William A.

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    Reflections on Human Origins

    "The evolutionary literature treats the evolution of humans from ape-like ancestors as overwhelmingly confirmed. Moreover, this literature defines evolution as an inherently material process without any guidance from an underlying intelligence. This paper reviews the main lines of evidence used to support such a materialist view of human evolution and finds them inadequate. Instead, it argues that an evolutionary process unguided by intelligence cannot adequately account for the remarkable intellectual and moral qualities exhibited among humans. The bottom line is that intelligence has played an indispensable role in human origins."
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    Finlay, Graeme

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    Homo divinus: The ape that bears God’s image

    "With the advance of the exact science of human genetics, one such key issue presents itself. Christians hold to the biblical assertion that people are created by God in his own image (Gen.1:26-27; 9:6; James 3:9). This status ascribed to humanity is a non-negotiable basis of the biblical world-view. Theologically we are creatures who share vital characteristics with God. But it is now clear that we must hold this conviction together with the sure knowledge that we are an evolved species. This knowledge arises from recent genetic advance, which has established conclusively that we are closely related to the (other) great apes, with which we share many unambiguous genetic markers. Biologically, we are apes. Hence the title of this paper."
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    Fischer, Dick

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    In Search of the Historical Adam: Part 2

    "In this article, the second in a series of two, the culture that surrounded the early Adamites in Southern Mesopotamia starting about 5000 to 4000 BC is examined. Early cuneiform writings and inscriptions speak about an historical figure that could have been Adam of Genesis. The Sumerian king lists of early pre-flood rulers begin with 'Alulim,' the probable equivalent of Adam. Eridu, the oldest city in Southern Mesopotamia, dating to about 4800 BC, is the most likely place to have been Eden, the original home for Adam and his kin. Even the word 'Eden' apparently was derived from the Sumerian 'edin,' meaning 'plain,' 'prairie,' or 'desert.' 'Enoch,' the city Cain built in the pre-flood period corresponds with 'Eanna(k),' a Sumerian and Semite post-flood site. Thus the early passages of Genesis are seen as factually relevant, and an integral part of secular pre-history."
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    Fischer, Dick

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    In Search of the Historical Adam: Part 1

    "Human beings appear to be related by common ancestry that extends back in time 100,000 years or more. If Genesis has accurately presented the surrounding environment in the beginning chapters, and if weight is given to recent archaeological findings, Adam's niche in time and space is about 5000 to 4000 BC in Southern Mesopotamia, thus precluding his being the progenitor of the entire human race. The garden of Eden probably required irrigation via a canal network to sustain Adam and his immediate family. Although Adam may very well have been specially created by God, intermarriages between the covenant line of Adam and the indigenous populations assure even Adam's descendants a link to the distant past. All this can be deduced not only from archaeological finds and ancient cuneiform tablets, but from clues in the Scriptures as well."
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    McIntyre, John A.

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    The Real Adam

    "This investigation considers three versions of Adam: the Adam of Scripture, the Adam of the creeds, and the Adam of science. I find that the Adam of the creeds contradicts the Adam of Scripture while the Adam of science is complementary to the Adam of Scripture. By combining the Adam of science with the Adam of Scripture, we obtain the Real Adam. The tension between the prehistoric men found by science and the Adam of Scripture has been eliminated."
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    McIntyre, John A.

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    The Historical Adam

    "The discovery of prehistoric humans has cast doubt on the biblical date for Adam. In this paper, I demonstrate that it was Augustine, and not Scripture, who asserted that Adam was the ancestor of all humankind. By rejecting this assumption of Augustine, Adam can be placed at the biblical date of 4000 BC. Furthermore, by assuming that Adam was one of the prehistoric humans living in 4000 BC, several difficulties with the traditional interpretation of the story of Adam and Eve are eliminated."
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    Schneider, Robert C.

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    Seeking the Emergence of Created Man and Woman

    "This is a theory about the origin of human beings that combines the creation of man and woman by God with the theory of evolution. An explanation is given to reconcile the creation story in Scripture with scientific observation. Evolution is considered as a useful theory of the development of life on earth. A solution is given for the conflict between the continuity of Homo sapiens coming forward to today’s human beings, and our creation by God."
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    Schneider, Robert J.

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    Human Evolution and the Image of God

    "Many Christians reject the notion of human evolution on purely biblical and theological grounds. They assert that the Bible's creation accounts in Genesis 1 and 2 are historical fact, and interpret them to mean that God separately created each species. Especially, God created a first couple, Adam and Eve, superior to all other forms of life in that they bear the divine 'image and likeness.' So, human evolution raises serious issues of faith for many Christians about the historicity of Adam and the claim that humans bear the image of God. To address these issues, I divide this essay into two parts. In the first I survey briefly the empirical evidence for human evolution from the primate lineage, based upon physical anthropology, genetics, and radioactive dating. In the second I reflect upon the implications of these scientific discoveries for theology and biblical interpretation. Can an evolving humanity be said to bear the image of God? I'll argue that it can."
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    Wilcox, David L.

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    Establishing Adam: Recent Evidences for a Late-Date Adam (AMH@100,000 BP)

    "The appearance of modern humans continues to be a major controversy in paleoanthropology. The issues include genetic, anatomical, and cultural matters. For the Christian, there are also important theological issues, leading to various estimations of the timing of “Eden” ranging from two million years ago to six thousand years ago.1 Several interesting papers related to this issue were published last year. This communication notes several of these and suggests a biological mechanism possibly involved in the process by which God created humanity."
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    Zimmer, J. Raymond

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    A Possible Natural Complement to the Story of the Fall

    "The story of the Fall may be regarded as an association between a local event and its global consequences. This association will be denoted by brackets as {local : global}. {Genesis 2:4–4:26 : Romans 5:12–14} is one association belonging to the story of the Fall. The purpose of this article is to propose a natural {local : global} association that complements {Genesis 2:4–4:26 : Romans 5:12–14}. The binding of these two complementary associations yields a deeper appreciation of our current human condition."
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    Zimmer, J. Raymond

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    The Creation of Man and the Evolutionary Record

    "If we ask the question, "What if Genesis 1:1-2:3 resembled the evolutionary record?", we can avoid the pitfall of concordantism and search for perspectives which allow us to artistically render a resemblance between the Creation story and the currently postulated evolutionary record. The purpose of this article is to reiterate a recently published perspective that presented a comparison between the six days of creation and six epochs of the evolutionary record. This paper will also apply that perspective in a comparison between Genesis 1:26-30, which depicts the creation of man, and hominid evolution as described by recent scientific publications."