Eschatology

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    Batstone, David B.

     (193K)

    Jesus, Apocalyptic, and World Transformation

    "It is often overlooked how ideologically explosive the notion of the kingdom of God was within Jesus' own social milieu. In first-century Palestine, it did not have the same metaphorical and strictly religious connotation that makes the term so safe within our own theological world. In fact, it evoked the memory and visionary impulse of Yahweh who acts to deliver Yahweh's 'chosen ones' from occupation and oppression at the hands of alien nations. Intrinsic to that symbolic universe is the conviction that the chosen suffer and the unjust prosper in the present day only because history stands at the brink of a great reversal."
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    Bird, Michael F.

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    The Crucifixion of Jesus as the Fulfillment of Mark 9:1

    "Understanding Mark 9:1 presents a vexing problem for scholars, pastors, and laity alike...Arguments based on the grammar of the text have failed to deliver a convincing solution. Similarly, appeals to either form critical or redactional studies have not won a consensus. The former argues that the logion is not authentic and simply reflects the concerns of the Markan community whilst the latter believes that an original Parousia saying has been reinterpreted to refer to the transfiguration...Another proposal is that the logion is fulfilled in the crucifixion where Jesus' death constitutes the coming of the kingdom of God in power. This position has been defended by Kent Brower, Paul Barnett, Ched Myers, and N. T. Wright, albeit from very different approaches. For Brower and Barnett it is through analysis of Mark's theology, for Myers by a liberationist reading, and for Wright via a historical study. In view of these attempts, it is the aim of this essay to pursue this solution further and expand the breadth of the argument."
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    Caird, G. B.

     (142K)

    Jesus And The Jewish Nation

    "...[T]he main object of my lecture...is to say something about New Testament eschatology, and particularly about the Day of the Son of Man...There is not the slightest justification for describing the Day of the Lord as an eschaton, a final event beyond which nothing else could conceivably happen. It is final only in the sense in which the end of a nursery story is final: ‘and they all lived happily ever after’. National eschatology has been well defined by Ernst Jenni of Basel...: '"Eschatology” in the broader sense refers to a future in which the circumstances of history are changed to such an extent that one can speak of a new, entirely different, state of things, without, in so doing, necessarily leaving the framework of history.’"
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    Malina, Bruce J.

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    Exegetical Eschatology, the Peasant Present and the Final Discourse Genre: the Case of Mark 13

    "The ancient literary form best fitting the Synoptic 'Eschatological Discourse' is the final discourse, the final words of a person about to die, describing what was forthcoming for those near and dear to him/her. The nineteenth-century German theological terms 'apocalyptic' and 'eschatology' are misplaced and misleading when applied to New Testament documents in general and to the Synoptic final discourse in particular. Ancient self-evident presuppositions about the devolution of life might have naturally (i.e. culturally) served as latent assumptions in the Synoptic story line but do not receive explicit attention."
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    Marshall, I. Howard

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    Eschatology and the Parables

    "The subject which has occupied us here has been the limited one of considering the eschatological teaching of the parables of Jesus. We have provisionally adopted the interpretation of the eschatological teaching of Jesus given by W. G. Kümmel and others, and it has proved possible to interpret the parables in a satisfactory manner along such lines. We have also seen that on the one hand the interpretation of the parables in terms of realized eschatology leads to forced explanations of many of them, and on the other hand the interpretation of the teaching of Jesus in terms of an imminent coming of the kingdom fails to do justice to the parables and leads to an unnecessarily sceptical estimate of their authenticity."
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    McKnight, Scot

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    Catching the Wave, or Facing the Tsunami?

    "Because my life’s story finds itself wrapped around the various poles of Christian thinking about eschatology, I have in the following allowed my own story to govern the shape of my thinking about eschatology. In short, along with many other theologians, my thinking has moved through several “either/ors”: either pre-tribulation or post-tribulation rapture and either literal or metaphorical interpretation of eschatological language. By a strange twist of fate, my own thinking moved to the metaphorical hermeneutic while many popular evangelical preachers were packaging once again the older notion of the pre-tribulation rapture. To adjudicate between the literal and the metaphorical, one needs to examine prophetic language honestly and fairly; furthermore, as will be shown below, one needs a firm grasp of what Jesus was speaking of when he gave the address now recorded in Mark 13 (and Matthew 24 and Luke 21). I have not footnoted the paper but have left it in its original public lecture format."
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    McKnight, Scot

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    Jesus and the Twelve

    "That Jesus associated himself especially with twelve of his followers is a datum firmly established by good arguments across a broad spectrum of modern Jesus studies. But why Jesus chose the Twelve is in need of serious reconsideration because the standard, eschatological explanation has rarely been examined. A careful examination of the evidence pertaining to the number 'twelve' in the Hebrew Bible and in ancient Jewish sources suggests that Jesus chose the Twelve to evoke the twin themes of covenant renewal (a Joshua theme) and eschatological restoration (with the reunification of the twelve tribes implied)."
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    Turner, David L.

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    The Structure and Sequence of Matthew 24:1-41: Interaction with Evangelical Treatments

    "Evangelical studies of Matthew 24 tend to emphasize either the A.D. 70 destruction of Jerusalem (preterist view), the eschatological return of Christ (futurist view), or some combination of the two (preterist-futurist views). This study evaluates evangelical approaches, stressing recent treatments. It is concluded that a substantial portion of the chapter describes the present age. The A.D. 70 destruction of Jerusalem and the eschatological tribulation are theologically linked, with the former event serving as a token or earnest which anticipates the latter. 'This generation' (24:34) describes Jesus' contemporaries who lived to see the destruction of Jerusalem. 'All these things' (24:34) is limited by the contextual fig tree analogy to the events marking the course of the age, particularly the events of A.D. 70."