Galatians

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    Black, David Alan

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    Weakness Language in Galatians

    "The Apostle Paul can rightly be regarded as 'the Theologian of Weakness.' Yet Paul's theology of weakness developed in a dynamic fashion in response to the situations facing him, and his particular formulations are consistently adapted and designed to meet particular issues at hand. Nowhere is this more clearly seen than in those letters in which the apostle finds himself forced to answer the criticisms of his opponents regarding his own weakness (Galatians and 1 and 2 Corinthians). After an examination of Gal 4:9 and 13, the author concludes that weakness language is Paul's way of making clear to his readers in Galatia that the source of power for salvation and progress in holiness is found, not in one's religious activities (4:9) nor in one's own personal strengths (4:13), but in God himself."
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    Bruce, F. F.

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    The Curse of the Law

    "...Paul’s argument in the paragraph Gal. 3.10-14 is that the Law brings no blessing with it, but a curse. Far from justifying men and women in the sight of God, it condemns them. It tells them what to do, but imparts no power to do it, while it pronounces a curse on those who fail to keep it in its entirety. The gospel, on the other hand, tells how men and women may be justified by faith; it puts them in the way of receiving the blessing which God promised to Abraham and, through him and his offspring, to all the nations."
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    Bundrick, David R.

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    Ta Stoicheia tou Kosmou (Gal 4:3)

    "The exact meaning of the phrase ta stoicheia tou kosmou, translated in the RSV as 'the elemental spirits of the universe,' has been difficult to ascertain. The Church fathers debate its significance, and modern scholars have also continued to find the subject a fruitful field for discussion. No less than two doctoral dissertations have been devoted to the topic in the past twenty-five years, both having copious bibliographies of relevant articles and books published in this century. The purpose of the present study is to briefly survey the history of the various interpretations of the phrase and to suggest the most accurate interpretation based on the accumulated contextual, historical and philological evidence."
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    Galatians

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    Galatians - World English Bible (WEB)

    This is an open source version of the bible based on the 1901 ASV (American Standard Version). This document may be freely distributed, there is no copyright on this translation.
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    Jobes, Karen H.

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    Jerusalem, Our Mother: Metalepsis and Intertexttuality in Galatians 4:21-31

    "In Gal 4:21-31 the apostle Paul performs a hermeneutical tour de force unequaled in the NT. The Christians of Galatia were, unwittingly perhaps, in danger of rejecting the saving grace of Jesus Christ by embracing the covenant of Jewish law expressed in circumcision. In these eleven short verses Paul effects a turnabout with enormous theological implication by arguing that if the Galatians really understood God's law, they would throw out any idea of being circumcised along with those persons who advocated it, because that is what the law itself demands! In a radical historical and theological reversal, Paul claims that Christians, and not Jews, are the promised sons of Abraham and are the true heirs of the promises of the Abrahamic covenant."
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    Longenecker, Richard N.

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    The "Faith of Abraham" Theme in Paul, James and Hebrews: A Study in the Circumstantial Nature of New Testament Teaching

    "The theme of the faith of Abraham is employed by three different NT writers in three quite different ways: by Paul in Galatians 3 and Romans 4, by James in chap. 2, and by the writer to the Hebrews in chap. 11. What I would like to do here is to focus attention on the varied treatments of this theme in the NT, spelling out its circumstantial employment and suggesting some implications that can be drawn for our understanding of the Christian message and for our Christian ministries today. By 'circumstantial' I do not mean to suggest 'incidental,' 'inferential' or 'unessential,' as the word sometimes connotes. Rather, I have in mind 'that which relates to and is dependent upon the circumstances for its specific thrust and form.'"
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    Longenecker, Richard N.

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    The Pedagogical Nature of the Law in Galatians 3;19-4:7

    "In the discussion of Christians and the Mosaic Law, the analogy of the pedagogue in Gal 3:24-25 and the illustration of a son in a patrician household in Gal 4:1-7 provide significant though somewhat puzzling points of reference. There is no doubt that the analogy and illustration are meant to be taken together. Our difficulties have to do with (1) what Paul meant by them, (2) what areas in the discussion they apply to, and (3) how seriously they should be taken. So while Gal 3:24-25 and 4:1-7 are important passages for a Christian understanding of the Mosaic Law, the analogy and illustration require careful explication if we are to grasp Paul's point aright."
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    Russell, Walter B.

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    Rhetorical Analysis of the Book of Galatians, Part 1

    "In recent years several new hermeneutical approaches to the Scriptures have arisen. One of the most promising, yet formidable and sometimes inscrutable, approaches is that of 'rhetorical analysis' or 'rhetorical criticism.'...This two-part series seeks to present rhetorical analysis within a positive, yet discerning light. This first article introduces rhetorical analysis by describing this interpretive tool, specifying the procedure of rhetorical analysis, illustrating this procedure by applying it to the Book of Galatians, and analyzing previous rhetorical analyses of Galatians. The second article will offer a full-orbed rhetorical analysis of Galatians."
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    Russell, Walter B.

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    Rhetorical Analysis of the Book of Galatians, Part 2

    "Hopefully this lengthy rhetorical analysis of Galatians has accomplished three things. First, it has demonstrated the value of rhetorical analysis as an interpretive tool...Second, tracing Paul's argument/rhetoric hopefully has demonstrated the continuity in his argument from Galatians 3–4 through Galatians 5–6...Third, by noting the continuity in argumentation, one is helped in noting afresh how Paul used...'flesh'...and 'spirit' in chapters 5 and 6."
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    Russell, Walter B.

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    The Apostle Paul's Redemptive-Historical Argumentation in Galatians 5:13-26

    "It is with a great personal debt to Herman Ridderbos that I owe my basic understanding of Pauline theology. Largely through the lens of his perspective, I have come to appreciate the missiological and theological passion of the apostle. However, I have also found through my own study of Paul's Epistle to the Galatians the need to apply his redemptive-historical perspective even more extensively than he did. Specifically, Paul's argumentation in Galatians 5-6 depends even more heavily upon a redemptivehistorical perspective than Ridderbos determined in his commentary on Galatians."
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    Russell, Walter B.

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    Who Were Paul's Opponents in Galatia?

    "Paul's opponents in Galatia are central to the argument of Galatians because the epistle is essentially a response to their threat to the churches of Galatia. Therefore it is not surprising to see that the opponents are mentioned in every chapter (1:6-9; 2:4-5; 3:1; 4:17; 5:10, 12; 6:12-13). Conservative scholars have historically assumed that these foes were Judaizers and have interpreted the text in that light. However, in the last 70 years a persistent critique now gaining widespread acceptance says that the Judaizer identity is totally inadequate in explaining crucial verses..."
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    Schreiner, Thomas R.

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    Is Perfect Obedience to the Law Possible? A Re-examination of Galatians 3:10

    "The precise nature of Paul's argument in Gal 3:10 is a subject of debate today. The verse reads as follows: 'For all who rely on works of the law are under a curse; for it is written, "Cursed be everyone who does not abide by all things written in the book of the law, and do them"'(RSV). The question we want to explore is the logical relationship between the two assertions that are made in the verse, for it is obvious that Paul thought that the citation from Deut 27:26 was support for the assertion that he made in Gal 3:10a."
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    Silva, Moises

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    Abraham, Faith and Works: Paul's Use of Scripture in Galatians 3:6-14

    "Few passages in the Pauline literature have received as much attention as vv. 10–14 in chapter 3 of Galatians. Thus the numerous exegetical problems we face here are greatly compounded by the increasingly large number of attempts to solve them. If I hope to say anything meaningful at all, selectivity is key. And beyond selectivity, an effort must be made to have as well-focused a goal as possible. Oddly enough, my decision to extend the limits of the passage by including vv. 6–9 helps to define the discussion more narrowly, for it makes even clearer that I cannot hope to treat all the questions that surface here like bristles on a porcupine. Although some of those details must be carefully considered, my primary purpose is to focus on the basic question of how and why Paul brings these quotations together as he does."
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    Stein, Robert H.

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    The Relationship of Galatians 2:1-10 and Acts 15:1-35: Two Neglected Arguments

    "One of the classical problems involved in establishing a chronology of the life of Paul is the relationship of the first three visits of the Apostle mentioned in Acts and the two visits mentioned in Galations...[E]vangelicals have greatly debated whether Galatians 2:1-10 refers to Paul's second visit to Jerusalem (Acts 11:30; 12:25) or this third (Acts 15:1-35). The present writer would like to present two related arguments in favor of the latter view which have not received the attention they deserve."
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    Thatcher, Tom

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    The Plot of Gal 3:1-18

    "Galatians 3:1–18 is generally read as...linear narrative. This approach presupposes that Paul’s rhetoric is undergirded by a discontinuous salvation history, where 'discontinuous' means that the Jewish law has no positive place in God’s salvific plan. Whether this is an accurate assessment of Paul’s view of the law will not be considered here. Instead it will be noted that the linear approach, by projecting this theological discontinuity onto the surface level of Paul’s argument, tends to leave Gal 3:1–18 logically and/or rhetorically incoherent. A new approach to the logical and rhetorical coherence of 3:1–18 will then be sought by approaching the passage as the second type of plot mentioned earlier: a plot of space."
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    Wallace, Daniel B.

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    Galatians 3:19-20: A Crux Interpretum for Paul's View of the Law

    "...Gal 3:19-20 is a crux interpretum for the origination and purpose of the law in Paul's thought. It is central to Hubner's thesis of disjunctive development and to Raisanen's view of self-contradiction; it provides a major hurdle to Cranfield's idea of the law's continuing validity as well as, to some degree, Sanders' thesis of covenantal nomism. Yet, there is a wide diversity of opinion about the text. In fact, v. 20 alone has been the victim of literally hundreds of different interpretations...Our purpose in this paper, therefore, is to interpret Gal 3:19-20 in light of the current debate over Paul's view of the law."