• File

    Adams, Sean A.


    Luke's Preface and its Relationship to Greek Historiography: A Response to Loveday Alexander

    "Loveday Alexander expresses the opinion that Luke’s preface (1.1-4) is not similar to classical Greek historical prefaces, but is more akin to scientific prefaces. She states that Luke’s preface does not conform to the formal characteristics of a historical work in the areas of author’s name, dedication, themes, sources and preface length. In particular, Alexander expresses that Luke deviates from the typical Greek historical pattern, especially that which is emulated by Thucydides. I disagree with this conclusion because there are a large number of parallels that Luke has with the historical preface writings of the classical and Hellenistic eras, specifically in the areas of style, personal introduction, preface length, dedications and common themes. I will discuss each of these in turn."
  • File

    Bailey, Kenneth E.


    "Rejoice with Me: Luke 15:1-10", an excerpt from The Cross & the Prodigal: Luke 15 Through the Eyes of Middle Eastern Peasants

    "Violent storms arise quickly on the Sea of Galilee. Even seasoned sailors such as Peter and John were sometimes caught in them. Luke 15 begins with rumblings more ominous than thunder over the lake. The religious establishment felt threatened by the innovator in their midst. When he told these stories, Jesus was himself on the way to Jerusalem, where the storm would break on him in an attempt to eliminate the threat he posed to the ruling elite. The three deceptively simple stories in Luke 15 build toward a tense climax in the confrontation between the father and the older son at the end of the parable of the prodigal son."
  • File

    Bock, Darell L.


    Understanding Luke's Task: Carefully Building on Precedent (Luke 1:1-4)

    "There is only one Gospel where the writer spells out his purpose and preparation in detail. That is the Gospel of Luke. The introduction of Luke's Gospel is significant because he not only tells us why he writes and how he writes but also indicates the state of the tradition about Jesus at the time he writes. In addition, the meaning of the passage is hotly debated, with virtually every phrase a matter of dispute. This article seeks to examine the preface and its meaning."
  • File

    Bock, Darrell L.


    The Son of Man in Luke 5:24

    "In Luke 5:24, Jesus heals a paralytic and relates that healing to his authority as the 'Son of Man.' The wording of the verse, including the unusual parenthetical break in the middle, is virtually identical in all three gospels. The fact that all three gospels share the unusual construction suggests a similar source. This verse marks the first use of the title 'Son of Man' by Luke. It parallels Mark 2:10, which is also the first appearance of the title in that gospel. The Matthean parallel, Matt 9:6, is the second appearance of the title in that gospel. Luke uses this title 25 times in his gospel, but this text is unique in yet another way. It is the only Son of Man saying in the gospels which is bound immediately and directly to a miracle. As such, it is a crucial text, not only because it appears early in Jesus’ ministry, but also because it links his teaching about himself to his work, showing the connection between the two."
  • File

    Brindle, Wayne


    The Census and Quirinius: Luke 2:2

    "Many questions have arisen since the early nineteenth century concerning this census and its connection with Quirinius. The problem is that Quirinius, as far as is known, governed Syria only during A.D. 6-7, and not at all in 5 B.C. Why then does Luke say that Jesus was born during a census that took place while Quirinius was governor of Syria?...The bulk of this article will concern a fresh look at the problem, but first some of the popular attempts to solve it will be surveyed."
  • File

    Bruce, F.F.


    Luke's Presentation of the Spirit in Acts

    "The Holy Spirit in the divine agent and witness of the new age. He imparts life and power. To receive him the prime prerequisite is faith in Jesus (which involves repentance from everything inconsistent with such faith). Faith in Jesus was visibly attested by baptism in/into his name. All who believed in him and were baptized in his name received the Spirit..."
  • File

    Carlson, Stephen C.


    Luke's Panel Technique for his "Orderly" Narration

    "...[T]he chronology of Luke’s ordered account should be understood as subordinated to the topical ordering of Luke’s panels, often dedicated to one major character at a time, even if other figures remain anonymous. While each panel is narrated with attention to chronological order, successive panels may overlap in their chronology. To coordinate the timing at panel boundaries, Luke fast forwards the chronology at the end of one panel and rewinds it at the beginning of the next. If this imagery is too anachronistic, then envision Luke’s rolling and unrolling not a videotape but a scroll back and forth as he tells his own story."
  • File

    Evans, Craig A.


    "Introduction" to Luke

    "If asked who the major theologians of the New Testament are, most Christians would probably mention Jesus, John, and Paul. Few would think of Luke; and yet his two-volume work, Luke-Acts, amounts to approximately one fourth of the entire New Testament! No other contributor to the New Testament wrote as much. No doubt because they primarily view Luke as a historian, readers of the New Testament are not inclined to view Luke as a significant theologian. Nevertheless, the last few decades have seen...more and more emphasis...on the evangelist's theology."
  • File

    Evans, Craig A.


    "Luke's Preface (Luke 1:1-4), Chapter 1 of Luke

    "The first four verses of Luke's gospel make up what is sometimes called a 'prologue' or 'preface'...Luke's preface is unique among the canonical Gospels...[I]t is written in a very sophisticated style and reminiscent of the prefaces of some of the classical historians of antiquity, such as Herodotus, Thucydides, and Polybius..."
  • File

    Han, Kyu S.


    Theology of Prayer in the Gospel of Luke

    "The purpose of this paper is to investigate the theology of prayer in the Gospel of Luke. We will begin with a survey of scholars’ views regarding Luke’s theology of prayer. Two themes have been suggested: (1) prayer and salvation history; and (2) prayer as a model for the church (didactic prayer), though the majority of scholars admit both concepts and attempt to identify which has primacy. The subsequent sections will examine the prayer texts"
  • File

    Johnson, Alan F.


    Assurance for Man: The Fallacy of Translating Anaideia by "Persistence" in Luke 11:5-8

    "One of the most exciting areas today in NT studies is the interpretation of the parables...Our intent is to bring to bear certain features of this rich background material and recent interpretive trends on the interpretation of the parable of the 'friend at midnight' in Luke 11:5-8. It is our thesis that this parable about prayer has been misunderstood by the Church since earliest times. Traditionally the parable has been interpreted to mean that 'persistence' in prayer will eventually move God to answer. This paper will argue that the traditional understanding is both exegetically and theologically indefensible."
  • File

    Kapic, Kelly M.


    Receiving Christ's Priestly Benediction: A Biblical, Historical, and Theological Exploration of Luke 24:50-53

    "What does it mean to be blessed by God? Numerous responses could be given to this vague question...Beginning our investigation by narrowly focusing on Luke’s particular understanding of the relationship between Christ and blessing, special attention will be given to Jesus’ ascension found in Luke 24:50-53. In this brief biblical exploration we will compare Luke’s imagery with (1) relevant background material and (2) a few indications of how this idea is taken up and developed in the NT, especially in Acts. After outlining the basic biblical foundation for the connection between benediction and ascension, we will give some examples of how these ideas have been used historically to inform a theological understanding of Christ’s presence in the church, as well as an understanding of the atonement."
  • File

    Kistemaker, Simon J.


    The Structure of Luke's Gospel

    "Luke, the evangelist and coworker with Paul in the proclamation of the oral gospel, apparently was thoroughly familiar with a somewhat stereotyped gospel the apostles preached...Out of the material available, Luke had to select certain words and deeds of Jesus and arrange them 'in an orderly account.' The sequence in which Luke records these words and deeds of Jesus many times is not that of the other two synoptic writers. Luke's sequence seems to be dictated not by strict chronology but by emphases, themes, literary balance and design."
  • File

    Larkin, William J.


    Luke's Use of the Old Testament as a Key to His Soteriology

    "One of the 'theological accusations' brought against Luke's theology by many NT scholars since 1950 is his lack of a soteriological interpretation of Jesus' death. They note that Luke does not use Mark 10:45 in his gospel. If the shorter reading of the words over the bread and cup (Luke 22:15-19a) is accepted as authentic, Luke again fails to include words that interpret Jesus' death soteriologically, particularly as a vicarious atonement...From all of this evidence it appears that a strong case can be made for Luke's non-soteriological understanding of Jesus' death...Yet for several reasons it may be beneficial to re-examine this generally accepted estimate of Luke's soteriology."
  • File



    Luke - World English Bible (WEB)

    This is an open source version of the bible based on the 1901 ASV (American Standard Version). This document may be freely distributed, there is no copyright on this translation.
  • File

    Maile, John F.


    The Ascension in Luke-Acts

    "‘Theologically and empirically the Ascension of Jesus Christ is at the very heart of the New Testament.' If those words, with which Brian Donne closes his recent study of the significance of the ascension of Jesus in the NT, are true of the NT as a whole, an even stronger statement could be made in respect of the ascension it Luke-Acts. If we may assume for one moment that Luke 24:50-53 and Acts 1:9-11 are descriptions of the same incident, Luke has chosen to present the ascension twice, as the culmination and climax of his gospel and as the most striking element in the introduction to his second volume. That in so doing he provides the only description in the NT of a visible ascension of Jesus imparts to these two short narratives an importance out of all proportion to their length; and by using these ascension accounts to form the link between his two volumes Luke would seem to indicate their significance for a proper understanding of his theology and purpose."
  • File

    Meadors, Gary T.


    The “Poor” in the Beatitudes of Matthew and Luke

    "Do the 'poor' in Luke's account of the beatitudes refer to the economically impoverished whereas the 'poor in spirit' in Matthew's account refer to the pious? It has become quite common to answer such a question in the affirmative and thus to see a dichotomy between the two accounts. Indeed, redactional studies have correctly observed that Luke's gospel contains more unique material concerning the poor and oppressed than the other gospels. However, the reason for this has been much debated. This study argues that the 'poor' in both accounts of the beatitudes refer primarily to the pious."
  • File

    Merrill, Eugene H.


    The Sign of Jonah

    "Jesus did indeed perform many signs in the presence of his disciples and of unbelievers alike (see esp. John 2:11, 23; 3:2; 4:54; 6:2, 14, 26, 30; 7:31; 9:16; 10:41; 11:47; 12:18, 37; 20:30), but never in response to the challenge of or for the selfish benefit of the Pharisees and scribes, the 'wicked and adulterous generation.'...To the Pharisees and scribes, however, Jesus denied the semeia, promising only that they would in time be given the 'sign of the prophet Jonah' (Matt 12:39; 16:4; Luke 11:29)...This paper is an attempt to clarify how Jonah was such a persuasive sign to Nineveh."
  • File

    Powell, Mark Allan


    Salvation in Luke-Acts

    "The purpose of this article will be to describe Luke’s concept of salvation in a more systematic fashion than Luke himself would ever have done. The charts accompanying this article [at end of text] provide some of the data that needs interpreting. These charts examine the contexts in which the key words soter (savior), soteria (salvation), soterion (salvation), and sozein (to save) occur in Luke’s writings. For each occurrence, we have identified the person or persons to whom salvation is offered, the content given to this salvation (what it means), the basis for this salvation (who or what brings it), and the means through which this salvation is to be received."
  • File

    Resseguie, James L.


    Point of View in the Central Section of Luke (9:51-19:44)

    "Numerous studies have attempted to solve the perplexing problem posed by the central section of Luke's gospel: its purpose. In this brief essay I will attempt to show that the purpose of a part of Luke's central section is to present in sharp relief two conflicting ideological points of view--the view of Jesus, and the view opposed to his. Before Jesus moves into Jerusalem and toward the passion the reader is shown two distinct worldviews or systems of ideas."
  • File

    Scaer, Peter


    Luke, Jesus, and the Law

    "I will argue that Luke's position vis a vis the Law is not as conservative as it first appears. He narrates a change which is both theologically adept and strategically diplomatic. Within Luke-Acts the Law begins to lose its binding force. More specifically, the nature of Torah observance changes from divine mandate to pious custom. With the advent of Christ, the Law retains a place of honor, but becomes merely one vehicle by which God's people can demonstrate their allegiance to the one true God. To borrow a phrase from Eric Franklin, the Law, for Luke 'is not belittled, but it is downgraded.' The Mosaic Law has become part of the past, happily observed by some, but not entirely necessary for the future."
  • File

    Scott, J, Julius


    Stephen's Speech: A Possible Model for Luke's Historical Method

    "In examining the historiography of Stephen's speech the researcher finds himself in an unusually favorable position. Since most sources used by ancient historians have perished the modern student is usually limited only to tentative and conjectural conclusions about the writer's attitudes toward his task and his methods of handling sources at his disposal. However, the major source for the history related in Stephen's speech is the Old Testament. Consequently, in this case we can compare the historian's product (the Acts 7 speech) with his primary source (the OT) and come to some fairly definite conclusions about how at least this one ancient historian practiced his craft."
  • File

    Stein, Robert H.


    Luke 1:1-4 and Traditionsgeschichte

    "Of all the canonical gospels, Luke alone discusses the methodology used in the composition of his gospel. His prologue therefore is the most explicit statement available as to the transmission of the gospel traditions from the time of the historical Jesus to their incorporation into Luke's gospel. Scholars would of course like to have had Luke elaborate and comment a great deal more on the subject and to have been more explicit, but our disappointment over the brevity of Luke's statement should not cause us to forget how fortunate we are that he commented at all. Despite its brevity the Lukan prologue provides us with much useful material that enables us to understand what took place during the second and third Sitz im Leben(s) of the gospel tradition."