Matthew

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    Bailey, Mark L.

     (74K)

    The Doctrine of the Kingdom in Matthew 13

    "The message of the kingdom, preached by John, Jesus, and the disciples, included both the need for repentance and the announcement of the imminent coming of the kingdom. The former prepares individuals for the latter. Whereas in Luke 8:11 the message is called 'the word of God,' Matthew appropriately referred to it as 'the word of the kingdom' (Matt. 13:19), that is, the good news of the kingdom. While the message of the kingdom cannot be limited to the gospel, it must at least include it, as the various gospel contexts affirm. The good news is that God acted in Jesus Christ to provide redemption for humanity and to defeat all who would stand in the way of His being recognized as King."
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    Bailey, Mark L.

     (136K)

    The Parable of the Tares

    "The parable of the tares of the field is the second parable Jesus 'put' before the crowds (Matt. 13:24). Like the parable of the sower, this one conveys through an analogy truths relative to the kingdom of heaven. The parable of the tares appears only in Matthew (13:24–30) and is one of three (along with the sower and the dragnet) that Jesus interpreted (vv. 36-43). It continues the agricultural metaphor of seed and harvest...This parable describes a stage in God's kingdom program that has already begun-- the present form of God's rule, which is explained as 'the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven' (v. 11)."
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    Blomberg, Craig L.

     (167K)

    On Wealth and Worry: Matthew 6:19-34 -- Meaning and Significance

    "In the conclusion to the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus warns against professing Christians who claim to know him as Lord, but to whom Christ will one day say, 'I never knew you; depart from me ...' (7:23). Tragically, these will include persons in ministry (v 22). How can we recognize such people? 'By their fruits you shall know them' (v 20). But apparently their powerful words and deeds are not necessarily the telltale fruit (v 22). What then is determinative? Doubtless Jesus' answer would be the 'greater righteousness' which permeates his commandments. Matt 6:19-34 reminds us that a central element in that righteous living is appropriate stewardship of all our resources, in ways which demonstrate that anxiety for physical provision does not outweigh our claims to serve God rather than mammon."
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    Brooks, James A.

     (115K)

    The Unity and Structure of the Sermon on the Mount

    "Jesus is often described in the Gospels as a preacher. What has become his most famous sermon is recorded in Matthew 5-7 and Luke 6:17-49. The former is usually referred to as the Sermon on the Mount (note 5:1), the latter as the Sermon on the Plain (note 6:17 KJV). The following study will be concerned primarily with the unity and structure of the Matthean sermon, but a necessary preliminary is a consideration of the interrelationship of the two sermons."
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    Byargeon, Rick W.

     (127K)

    Echoes of Wisdom in the Lord's Prayer (Matt 6:9-13)

    "A brief comment by R. N. Whybray regarding Prov 30:7–9 led to my exploration of the present topic: 'The inclusion of this prayer, a genre unique in Proverbs, suggests that, like the Lord’s Prayer, which may have been partly based on it, it has a didactic purpose: that it is intended as a model prayer, composed by a pious man for imitation and reflection.'...I am therefore proposing that significant echoes of Prov 30:7–9 occur in the Lord’s prayer as recorded in Matt 6:9–13. The echoes do not preclude Jesus’ redaction of traditional Jewish expressions of prayer in the Lord’s prayer. The similarities between Prov 30:7– 9 and Matt 6:9–13 in terms of content and genre, however, suggest more of a wisdom echo in the Lord’s prayer than previously thought."
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    Callon, Callie

     (169K)

    Pilate the Villain: An Alternative Reading of Matthew’s Portrayal of Pilate

    "Several recent commentaries have assessed Matthew’s portrayal of the figure of Pilate in ways that range from having at least some positive characteristic attributed to him to a thoroughly exonerating portrayal. Yet, these views rely on the assumption that Matthew had complete creative control of his representation, unimpeded by the negative traditions concerning the historical figure. This article argues that attributing to Matthew a depiction of Pilate that is in any way positive is incongruent with Matthew’s historical context, his view of Jewish Law, as well as numerous internal aspects of his gospel. Rather, it is argued that Matthew crafts a vehemently negative portrayal of Pilate, culminating in 27:24, which would have been recognized as such by and found resonance with his community. An examination of how Matthew modifies and adds uniquely to his source Mark indicates that Matthew was familiar with traditions concerning the historical Pilate, shared a similar -- if not even harsher -- view, and created a narrative which reflects this."
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    Capes, David B.

     (127K)

    Intertextual Echoes in the Matthean Baptismal Narrative

    "Matthew's story of Jesus' baptism provides evidence of an 'Immanuel' ('God with us') Christology. In particular the first evangelist redacts Mark's account and envisages Jesus as an apocalyptic prophet according to the order of Ezekiel. Moreover, the opening of the heavens and descent of the Spirit echo Isaiah 63-64 and portray Jesus as God's answer to the petition longing for his presence and redemption. The dove image appears to have two intertextual functions: (1) to construe Jesus' baptism as the end of judgment and the beginning of new creation through the recollection of Noah's deliverance, and (2) to signal Jesus' role as sufferer through a lesserknown image of the dove as a symbol for God’s suffering people."
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    Carson, D. A.

     (178K)

    Christological Ambiguities in the Gospel of Matthew

    "Recent study of the Christology embraced by the Gospel of Matthew has usually run along several complementary lines...With few exceptions, however, these studies assume that because the Evangelist is writing from the perspective of faith, and decades after the events (most scholars believe the Gospel of Matthew was written about AD 85; Gundry, not later than AD 63; and others, from theological positions as polarized as those of William Hendriksen and John A. T. Robinson, place the book at various dates before AD 70), he must reflect a theology contemporaneous with his own Sitz im Leben. Inevitably, it is presupposed that the Gospel of Matthew is studded with Christological anachronisms. The purpose of this paper is to call these assumptions into question, and to suggest replacing them with a subtler construction which more fairly reflects the evidence."
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    Carson, D. A.

     (862K)

    The Jewish Leaders in Matthew's Gospel: A Reappraisal

    "...[I]t is argued, Matthew's handling of the Jewish leaders is so fundamentally anachronistic, especially in redactional passages, that the emerging picture cannot possibly be thought to reflect Jesus' time...The evidence advanced to support this view varies from scholar to scholar...Detailed treatment of all the passages would require a lengthy book. In...this short essay I propose to outline some limitations to our knowledge that are sometimes overlooked, comment on a representative sample of Matthean passages (dealing with Jewish leaders) most commonly cited as evidence for anachronism, and briefly discuss one or two of the broader theological problems."
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    Feiler, Paul Frederick

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    The Stilling of the Storm in Matthew: A Resonse to Gunther Bornkamm

    "According to Bornkamm, Matthew has interpreted the story of the stilling of the storm in a new way. He has taken the story out of its biographical setting in Mark and Luke, placed it in a different context in his gospel, and altered it in a characteristic way in order to make it serve a new motive. The new role in which the story is cast is that of a kerygmatic model of 'the danger and glory of discipleship. The underpinnings for Bornkamm's hypothesis are provided by an initial methodological assertion: Kerygmatic faith in Jesus served as the foundation of the gospel tradition."
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    Gundry, Robert H.

     (3.5M)

    A Response to "Matthew and Midrash"

    "Moo's crowning argument against midrash in Matthew consists of Matthew's 'conviction that the decisive revelation of God had recently been manifested in the historical actualities of Jesus' life and teaching', whereas midrash 'attributes to Matthew an unconcern with history' and 'assumes that Matthew as more interested in the tradition about Jesus than in the person of Jesus himself.' But if the traditions are historical, his interest in them amounts to an interest in Jesus himself. And since Moo believes that Matthew used Mark and Q for the bulk of his gospel, Moo himself has Matthew more interested in traditions about Jesus than in the person of Jesus himself...[Matthew] redacted Mark and Q midrashically not because he thought less of the historical Jesus but because he thought more of him. Updating and embellishing traditions had the purpose of making sure they would not fossilize but would breathe their life into a new set of circumstances."
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    Gundry, Robert H.

     (3.7M)

    A Surrejoinder to Douglas J. Moo

    "The order of this surrejoinder will follow, for the most part, the order of Moo's 'Rejoinder.' He starts by asking what makes my view preferable to others. My answer: its adequacy and economy in explaining the textual data. But the answer does not satisfy him, because I have not usually compared my view with other views so as to show in detail how it surpasses them in adequacy and economy...Moo is criticizing me for failing to do what in my Commentary I invite readers to do..."
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    Hagner, Donald A.

     (287K)

    Law, Righteousness, and Discipleship in Matthew

    "With the stress of current biblical scholarship on the diversity of theologies to be found in the New Testament, the problem of understanding the Gospel of Matthew vis-à-vis Paul and his teaching of justification by faith no longer receives much attention. According to the current consensus, the simple fact is that we have different theologies of salvation in Matthew and Paul, one emphasizing works and the other grace, and that’s that. In the classic Lutheran paradigm, the familiar law-gospel polarity results in a side-stepping of the problem by relegating the law to the realm of prolegomena. Yet it is Matthew the Christian who keeps talking about the law, and the church continues to ascribe canonical authority to his gospel. This familiar problem deserves ongoing attention and it is pursued here in the conviction that the various theologies of the New Testament writers are compatible rather than contradictory."
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    Harvey, A. E.

     (163K)

    Eunuchs for the Sake of the Kingdom

    "By any reckoning this is surely a surprising saying―so surprising, indeed, that it would seem unreasonable to attribute it to anyone but that master of the unexpected, Jesus himself. Just how surprising it is, and just how confident we may he that it goes back to Jesus, are questions which it will be the purpose of this lecture to explore."
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    Heater, Homer

     (430K)

    Matthew 2:6 and Its Old Testament Sources

    "Matthew's perspective on the person of Christ, begun in chap. 1 with a genealogy linking the patriarch Abraham and King David to the messianic King, is sharpened even more in chap. 2. Here the court of Herod is challenged by the appearance of the Magi, who inquire as to the birthplace of the king of the Jews. When Herod hears of this request, he is troubled and calls for the chief priests and scribes of the people to give him a private answer to this question. Their answer is contained in Matt 2:6: 'And you, Bethlehem, land of Judah, are by no means least among the leaders of Judah; for out of you shall come forth a Ruler, who will shepherd My people Israel'...My purpose in this article is to show that the scribes are not 'quoting' Mic 5:2 but providing what I call 'cumulative exegesis' from at least three OT passages."
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    Hultgren, Arland J.

     (211K)

    Forgive Us, As We Forgive (Matthew 6:12)

    "One of the puzzles concerning the petition is how to interpret the relationship between the two clauses. The first clause, taken by itself, is simple enough. The petitioner asks for forgiveness of sins (or debts). But then comes the word 'as,' which sets up a syntactical comparison. The result is that one asks God for forgiveness 'as' he or she forgives (or has forgiven) others. And that opens up a number of questions for exegesis, theology, and use of this prayer. The purpose of this essay is to explore the relationship between the two lines."
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    Lamerson, Samuel

     (158K)

    Forgiveness in the Gospel of Matthew

    "The man owed a whole lot of money. Such might have been words of Jesus in his parable of the unthankful servant, if he had been telling it today. The parable deals with the question of forgiveness from the standpoint of a debt that was owed. This parable, along with the other passages in which Matthew deals with forgiveness are critical to a proper understanding of Matthew's gospel. Because little has been written on Matthew's understanding of this concept, this paper will endeavor to examine the major passages in which the motif occurs, and offer a proposition based upon the exegesis of these passages."
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    Lewis, Jack P.

     (153K)

    "The Gates of Hell Shall Not Prevail Against It" (Matt 16:18): A Study of the History of Interpretation

    "After mentioning the building of his Church, Jesus stated to Peter (as translated in the KJV) that 'the gates of hell shall not prevail against it' (Matt 16:18)...Entering the gates of Hades as a metaphor for the experience of death begins in classical writers with Homer who describes dying as passing the gates of Hades and who speaks of the behavior of certain men as more hateful to him than the gates of Hades...Three verses further on in Matthew the disciples are plainly informed of the impending death and resurrection of Christ. Peter spoke of it on the day of Pentecost: 'But God raised him up, having freed him from death because it was impossible for him to be held in its power' (Acts 2:24)."
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    Matthew

     (314K)

    Matthew - World English Bible (WEB)

    This is an open source version of the bible based on the 1901 ASV (American Standard Version). This document may be freely distributed, there is no copyright on this translation.
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    McClister, David

     (96K)

    "Where Two or Three Are Gathered Together": Literary Structure as Key to Meaning in Matt 17:22-20:19

    "There has been much scholarly attention paid lately to the literary structure of Matthew’s gospel, but there is no consensus of thought on the subject. This is not only because scholars are divided over just how to go about the process of discerning Matthew’s literary structure1 but also because it is a complex document, employing several kinds of structuring devices...Matthew’s chiastic arrangement in 17:22–20:19 is his own creation, but it does not appear that he created it from scratch. Instead it builds on a framework common to the synoptic gospels. To this framework Matthew added materials to produce the chiastic structure...will show how the chiastic structure of Matt 17:22–20:19 provides a key to understanding the elements that make up the passage."
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    Merrill, Eugene H.

     (443K)

    The Sign of Jonah

    "Jesus did indeed perform many signs in the presence of his disciples and of unbelievers alike (see esp. John 2:11, 23; 3:2; 4:54; 6:2, 14, 26, 30; 7:31; 9:16; 10:41; 11:47; 12:18, 37; 20:30), but never in response to the challenge of or for the selfish benefit of the Pharisees and scribes, the 'wicked and adulterous generation.'...To the Pharisees and scribes, however, Jesus denied the semeia, promising only that they would in time be given the 'sign of the prophet Jonah' (Matt 12:39; 16:4; Luke 11:29)...This paper is an attempt to clarify how Jonah was such a persuasive sign to Nineveh."
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    Moo, Douglas J.

     (3.2M)

    Once Again, "Matthew and Midrash": A Rejoinder to Robert H. Gundry

    "The 'genuine dialogue' that Robert Gundry perceives to exist between him and me will, I hope, be maintained in this rejoinder...In this rejoinder I would like to expand on some of my arguments in light of Gundry's criticisms. In doing so I will not always repeat the previous discussion. The reader is therefore encouraged to read the two foregoing papers carefully before this one. Since Gundry's 'Response' follows the order of arguments in my original critique, I will use that same order to structure this rejoinder."
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    Moo, Douglas J.

     (2M)

    Matthew and Midrash: An Evaluation of Robert H. Gundry's Approach

    "In a statement that summarizes a major thrust of his commentary, Robert H. Gundry claims that 'comparison with the other gospels, especially with Mark and Luke, and examination of Matthew's style and theology show that he materially altered and embellished historical traditions and that he did so deliberately and often' (p. 639)...However, as long as Matthew's fabrications are regarded not as deliberately misleading falsification of historical facts, nor as accidental errors, but as homiletical embroidery of traditional material of a kind widely accepted in Matthew's day, charges of error are unfounded. It is our insistence on reading Matthew as empirical history in a modern, positivistic sense that creates difficulties...I question whether the problem is nearly as large as Gundry makes it."
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    Morosco, Robert E.

     (528K)

    Redaction Criticism and the Evangelical: Matthew 10 a Test Case

    "This paper is not a history of redaction criticism, nor is it an analysis of any of the redactional studies that have played such a large role in recent Biblical interpretations. Rather, it is a humble attempt to explore and set down in basic terms what the writer sees as the possible or potential value of redaction criticism for evangelical interpretations of the bible, especially the synoptic gopsels...We will approach our query into RC using the Commissioning Story (CS) of Matthew 10 as a test case."
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    Moulton, Mark

     (114K)

    Jesus' Goal for Temple and Tree: A Thematic Revisit of Matt 21:12-22

    "Perhaps the most puzzling public action of Jesus was his curse of the fig tree. The accounts of it in Matthew 21 and Mark 11 have generated a diversity of interpretations. In the past few decades many scholars have sought to exegete these passages with an eye to understanding how the withered tree account bears on what happened in the temple since these two dramatic actions are found side by side in both gospels. Some scholars interpret the tree story as an incident that actually happened and that is recounted in proximity to the temple event because the two occurred within a few days of each other. But even among scholars who deny an historical withering are many who approach the two dramatic actions of Jesus as mutually illuminating stories."
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    Mounce, Robert H.

     (270K)

    "Introduction" to Matthew

    "When the four Gospels were arranged (in the order we now have them in the New Testament) it was natural that the Gospel of Matthew should be placed first. Its distinctive structure and specific purpose made it an ideal Gospel for the growing church, with its need to instruct its converts in the life and teachings of Jesus. This early recognition has not diminished in the years that have followed. Though Mark continues to attract readers on the basis of vivid narrative, and Luke appeals to those of broad and benevolent concerns, Matthew is the Gospel that over the years has shaped the life and thought of the church."
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    Mounce, Robert H.

     (212K)

    "The Birth of Jesus (Matthew 1:1-25)", Chapter 1 of Matthew

    "Genealogical records were important to the Jewish people of Jesus' day. They were maintained by the Sanhedrin and used to ensure purity of descent. Josephus, the famous Jewish historian who served in the court of Rome, began his autobiography by listing his ancestral pedigree. Similarly, Matthew opens his Gospel by tracing the lineage of Jesus...At the very beginning Matthew establishes the two most significant points about Jesus' family history: he was the son of David...and also a descendant of Abraham."
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    Nelson, Neil D.

     (155K)

    This Generation' in Matt 24:34: A Literary Critical Perspective

    "The expression he genea haute ('this generation') in the Olivet discourse remains what Joseph A. Fitzmyer has termed 'the most difficult phrase to interpret in this complicated eschatological discourse.' Narrative criticism will be employed in this paper to show that 'this generation' in Matt 24:34 refers to a kind of people characterized by Matthew as unbelieving and headed toward eschatological judgment. In the context of the discourse it refers to that type of consummately evil and unbelieving people who deceive and persecute the disciples of Christ until the time of the parousia, when the true followers of Jesus are vindicated and 'this generation' passes away in judgment. This study will propose literary characterizations of the disciples and 'this generation' and show how these are keys to the purpose and interpretation of the discourse in general and to the parable of the fig tree (Matt 24:32–35) in particular."
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    Osborne, Grant R.

     (741K)

    Redaction Criticism and the Great Commission: A Case Study Toward a Biblical Understanding of Inerrancy

    "A great deal of misunderstanding about redaction criticism exists among evangelicals. Too often we have accepted the negative criteria of the radical critics as the only mode within which redactional work may be done. But redaction criticism, properly used, is a positive tool for Biblical research, and evangelicals should be in the forefront of research into its constructive possibilities. The purpose of this present study is to apply redactional techniques to the Great Commission (Matt. 28:16-20) in order to understand that pericope better. We shall then examine the implications for a Biblical understanding of inerrancy..."
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    Paffenroth, Kim

     (137K)

    Jesus as Anointed and Healing Son of David in the Gospel of Matthew

    "In this paper I will examine Jesus’ anointing and healing and their relation to his title Son of David in the Gospel of Matthew. As will be shown, these three aspects of Jesus’ ministry are of special importance to Matthew and he emphasizes and relates them so as to represent Jesus as the uniquely anointed 'Christ', the Son of David who has come to heal...Matthew embraces the title, then expands its implications to include the compassionate power shown in Jesus’ healings. It is not that Matthew shows Jesus to be more than the Son of David, but instead that Matthew shows Jesus to be the Son of David who is more than David...David was the anointed king, but was not a healer: Jesus Christ, the Son of David, is now the final, climactic example of both."
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    Porter, Stanley E. and Paul Buchanan

     (204K)

    On the Logical Structure of Matt 19:9

    "Few Biblical texts have as many practical theological consequences as the divorce passages in the synoptic gospels...Various issues in these passages have been repeatedly addressed, including their historical setting, their relation to Jewish teaching and belief at the time, and their relation to each other. But one issue repeatedly suggests itself since it threatens to unbalance the synoptic harmony: the so-called 'exception' phrases in Matt 5:32; 19:9. Since so much can be made to ride on such a slender phrase, it is imperative that the phrase be handled with the utmost precision."
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    Rabbinowitz, Noel S.

     (216K)

    Matthew 23:2-4: Does Jesus Recognize the Authority of the Pharisees and Does He Endorse their Halakhah?

    "In this essay I have suggested that the Pharisees legitimately occupied the Seat of Moses, an actual chair in the synagogue and a symbol of their legitimate authority...Because of the fact that Jesus attacks the Pharisees for their hypocrisy and for their corrupt teaching in so many other biblical passages, many scholars find this interpretation completely unacceptable. I have argued, however, that this apparent contradiction can be resolved by understanding that Jesus did not mean for his disciples to literally do “all” that the Pharisees taught. He meant rather that they were to obey their teachings regarding the Torah and halakhah in principle, a fact supported by Jesus’ own basic observance of oral tradition."
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    Saucy, Mark

     (237K)

    The Kingdom-Of-God Sayings in Matthew

    "More than three decades ago Ridderbos made the observation that at the beginning of Jesus' ministry the kingdom was present (Matt. 4:17), but at the end of His ministry it was far away, almost 'as if it had not yet come' (Matt. 28:19-20; Acts 1:6- 8). While many will see in this observation evidence for the 'already/not yet' view in regard to the timing of the kingdom, few have considered Ridderbos's observation as a warrant to say much else for the kingdom because of the narrative chronology he has assumed. Could the kingdom in the beginning of the Gospels have differed in nature from the kingdom at the end of the Gospels? This article proposes a yes answer to that question, as seen in the Gospel of Matthew."
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    Scott, J. W.

     (132K)

    Matthew's Intention to Write History

    "In 'A Theological Postscript' to his redaction-critical study of Matthew’s Gospel, Robert H. Gundry argues that Matthew wrote his work in the accepted 'midrashic' manner, i.e. by deliberately embellishing historical narrative with nonhistorical elements...Gundry’s thesis has been criticized by several scholars...Largely overlooked in the Gundry debate are the formulas with which Matthew introduces his 'fulfillment quotations,' or 'formula quotations,' so called because these OT quotations are introduced with a formula referring to the fulfillment of Scripture. We would suggest that Matthew’s literary intention can be determined from these (and two other) passages, because in them he characterizes the events that he has just related. The manner in which he comments upon the Gospel events, we will argue, shows that he understood his accounts to be, and thus intended them to be, strictly historical in character."
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    Smillie, Gene R.

     (199K)

    "Even the Dogs": Gentiles in the Gospel of Matthew

    "That several dozen references to Gentiles (or 'peoples,' 'pagans,' 'nations,' etc.) appear in a book so evidently Jewish as Matthew’s Gospel should not surprise anyone familiar with the literature of that period. What does surprise the careful reader is the juxtaposition of conventional negative stereotypes of the Gentiles alongside such positive portraits as we have briefly noted here...[T]he conventional language and imagery is often found in the discourses, while the unconventional usages are found in narrative materials. Why this should be programmatic in Matthew is not immediately obvious. But when these observations are collated together with Matthew’s overall method and message, a pattern is easier to discern."
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    Sproule, John A.

     (84K)

    The Problem of the Mustard Seed

    "In this article the author seeks to demonstrate exegetically and botanically that our Lord Jesus Christ was not merely using the language of accommodation or even proverbial language, necessarily, when he referred to the mustard seed as the "least" of all seeds. The author appeals to the language of the text, the context, and to expert testimony in the field of botany to show that the mustard seed was indeed the smallest garden-variety seed known to man in Bible times."
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    Stein, Robert H.

     (408K)

    "Is It Lawful for a Man to Divorce His Wife?"

    "This question that the Pharisees addressed to Jesus (Mark 10:2) is still a troubling one today...The purpose of this article, then, is to understand how Jesus actually answered the question on divorce, to see how the evangelists and the apostle Paul interpreted Jesus' answer, and to see if some conclusions can be drawn as to how we should apply this to our own situation today."
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    Turner, David L.

     (135K)

    Whom Does God Approve? The Context, Structure, Purpose, and Exegesis of Matthew’s Beatitudes

    "According to Jesus, God approves those who turn to Him when they hear the message of His rule (Matt 3:2; 4:17; 10:7; 13:19; 24:14). Their turning is marked by the character traits summarized by Jesus in the beatitudes, Matthew 5:3-12. These character traits are gracious gifts which result from God's approval (cf. Matt 11:25-27; 13:11; 16:17), not requirements for performance which merits God's approval. However, those who have repented should cultivate these characteristics (cf. Matt 11:28-29; 13:23; 16:24). Each beatitude contains a pronouncement concerning who is blessed backed up by a promise concerning why they are blessed. The qualities which God does approve are explained in two sets of four, describing relating to God and relating to other people respectively (cf. Matt 22:37-40)."
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    Turner, David L.

     (280K)

    The Structure and Sequence of Matthew 24:1-41: Interaction with Evangelical Treatments

    "Evangelical studies of Matthew 24 tend to emphasize either the A.D. 70 destruction of Jerusalem (preterist view), the eschatological return of Christ (futurist view), or some combination of the two (preterist-futurist views). This study evaluates evangelical approaches, stressing recent treatments. It is concluded that a substantial portion of the chapter describes the present age. The A.D. 70 destruction of Jerusalem and the eschatological tribulation are theologically linked, with the former event serving as a token or earnest which anticipates the latter. 'This generation' (24:34) describes Jesus' contemporaries who lived to see the destruction of Jerusalem. 'All these things' (24:34) is limited by the contextual fig tree analogy to the events marking the course of the age, particularly the events of A.D. 70."
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    Tuttle, Gary A.

     (912K)

    The Sermon on the Mount: Its Wisdom Affinities and Their Relation to Its Structure

    "One area of Biblical studies in which scholars have exercised themselves recently is concerned with the relationship of the OT wisdom corpus to other portions of the Hebrew canon. The lion's share of attention has been paid the major prophets, though the minor prophets have received a fair share, while OT narrative literature has not suffered from neglect, nor have extracanonical books. Aspects of wisdom literature and the NT received attention. Some work has been done on the Sermon on the Mount (Matt 5-7), but apparently nothing that connects the wisdom features to the structure of the discourse. It is this relation we seek to elucidate in this paper."
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    Van Egmond, Richard

     (280K)

    The Messianic 'Son of David' in Matthew

    "...[I]t appears that Matthew’s Gospel shows at least some awareness of the contradictions posed by Jesus’ actual messianic identity and career on the one hand, and the popular expectations of a messianic political liberator on the other.111 But rather than downplay this ‘gap’, Matthew’s Gospel instead emphasizes Jesus’ messianic identity and does so by presenting a reinterpretation of the Davidic tradition that highlights Jesus’ kingly/prophetic works of healing, exorcism and innocent death. Through these activities and ordeals, Jesus the ‘son of David’ demonstrates his deeper and fuller identity—what Matthew refers to as the ‘Son of God’."
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    Westerholm, Stephen

     (125K)

    The Law in the Sermon on the Mount: Matt 5:17-48

    "The law, for Matthew, prescribed righteousness in an age of anticipation...the Matthean Jesus does not simply restate the requirements of the law, for its demands do not adequately correspond to the goodness of God; some of its provisions are limited by what is legally enforceable, whereas others indulge aspects of human sin in an attempt to limit sin's consequences...Jesus' commands transcend the law by prescribing (in a necessarily illustrative, not casuistic or comprehensive way) the goodness of God as the standard for his children...[A]ccording to the Sermon on the Mount, response is essential if Jesus' hearers are to enter God's kingdom..."
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    Witherington III, Ben

     (657K)

    "Introduction" and "Chapter 1: The Origins of Jesus" in Matthew

    "The Gospel of Matthew was placed first in the New Testament canon, and not without reason. By the time the canonizing process began in earnest in the fourth century AD, Matthew was the most popular and widely used Gospel for a whole host of reasons...[T]he Gospel of Matthew is a presentation of the story of Jesus and his followers viewed through the lens of a Jewish sapiential way of looking at the believing and spiritual life. This Gospel seeks to give not only information or inspiration, but wisdom for believing and living a godly life, and as such it lends itself to being used in spiritually formative ways."