Origin of Life

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    Behe, Michael


    Molecular Machines: Experimental Support for the Design Inference

    "To Darwin, the cell-and every microbiological function-was an unknowable black box. Now that we can look into this box, can we apply Darwin's theory to it? Why is it that, of the thousands of papers published in science journals, none ever discuss detailed models for intermediates in the development of complex biomolecular structures? In drawing his groundbreaking conclusions, Behe is not inferring design from what we do not know, but from what we do know."
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    Buratovich, Michael


    The Serial Endosymbiosis Theory: Cellular Origins and Intelligent Design Theory

    "Even though the origin of cells remains largely unresolved, the serial endosymbiont theory is widely accepted as the means by which two organelles, mitochondria and chloroplasts, came to be. The serial endosymbiont theory hypothesizes that mitochondria and chloroplasts were derived from ancient bacteria that were engulfed by an ancient, nucleated cell and took up residence in the cytoplasm of the nucleated cell, until over time these internalized cells became organelles. Several lines of evidence support the serial endosymbiont theory and associations between several species of insects and various microbes also provide convincing examples of intermediates in the process by which a microorganism becomes an organelle. The pervasiveness of endosymbiosis in nature suggests that organisms have a tendency to form mutually beneficial relationships. This tendency to form such relationships reflects the goodness that God imparted to creation and is somewhat antithetical to traditional Neo-Darwinism. Alternatively, the data suggest that more purposeful forces or principles might guide the formation and subsequent maturation of such relationships."
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    Denton, Michael


    The Protein Folds as Complex Natural Forms: Evidence that the Properties of Matter may be "Fine Tuned" for Protein Based Life

    "In the Fitness Henderson argued that many of the basic natural constituents of carbon based life on earth, such as water, carbon dioxide, simple carbon compounds and basic natural procesess such as oxidations appear to form a uniquely fit ensemble of constituents for 'the organic mechanism which we call life.' He concluded that as it is unlikely that any other ensemble of constituents exists [none is know ninety years later] which 'could possess . . . such great fitness' then carbon based life is a unique phenomenon and the universe specially ‘biocentric.’ Here I show that the one thousand protein folds represent another ensemble of natural constituents of life on earth (vastly more complex than the simple constituents considered by Henderson) which may also be uniquely fit for their biological role. This suggests that the properties of matter may be ‘fine tuned’ not just for generic carbon based life but for the specific type of protein based life as it exists on earth."
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    Meyer, Stephen C.


    The origin of biological information and the higher taxonomic categories

    "This review, and much of the literature it has surveyed, suggests that four of the most prominent models for explaining the origin of biological form fail to provide adequate causal explanations for the discontinuous increases of CSI that are required to produce novel morphologies. Yet, we have repeated experience of rational and conscious agents-- in particular ourselves--generating or causing increases in complex specified information, both in the form of sequence-specific lines of code and in the form of hierarchically arranged systems of parts."
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    Meyer, Stephen C.


    DNA by Design: An Inference to the Best Explanation for the Origin of Biological Information

    "This paper will present a design hypotheses, not as an explanation for the origin of species, but as an explanation for the origin of the information required to make a living system in the first place. Whereas Darwinism and neo-Darwinism address the former question, theories of chemical evolution have addressed the latter question of the ultimate origin of life. This essay will argue against the causal adequacy of chemical evolutionary theories whether based upon “chance,” “necessity,” or their combination. Instead it will suggest design as the best explanation for the origin of the information present in large bio-macromolecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins."
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    Meyer, Stephen C.


    DNA and the Origin of Life: Information, Specification, and Explanation

    "Many origin-of-life researchers now regard the origin of biological information as the central problem facing origin-of-life research. Yet, the term ‘information’ can designate several theoretically distinct concepts. By distinguishing between specified and unspecified information, this essay seeks to eliminate definitional ambiguity associated with the term ‘information’ as used in biology...In particular, this essay challenges the causal adequacy of naturalistic chemical evolutionary explanations for the origin of specified biological information, whether based upon “chance,” “necessity,” or the combination. Instead, it argues that our present knowledge of causal powers suggests intelligent design or agent causation as a better, more causally adequate, explanation for the origin of specified biological information."
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    Pruss, Alexander R.


    Programs, Bugs, DNA and a Design Argument.

    "I argue that an examination of the analogy between the notion of a bug and that of a genetic defect supports an analogy not just between a computer program and DNA, but between a computer program designed by a programmer and DNA. This provides an analogical teleological argument for the existence of a highly intelligent designer."
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    Rogland, Robert


    Pre-Programmed Descent with Modification: Functional Integrity, Intelligent Design, and Natural History

    "In this paper, I present the bare bones of a hypothesis that may prove useful to evangelical scientists striving to develop a Christian view of natural history. It is not a form of special creationism, for it allows for the great antiquity of the earth and does not insist that God created all or even most extant species separately in the beginning. It is not a form of theistic evolution, though it affirms descent with modification. It is not a form of progressive creationism, for it does not posit many separate, direct creative acts over the course of geologic time to account for discontinuities in the fossil record. The hypothesis proposes a kind of functional integrity in the original biota, enough functional integrity to obviate the necessity of God's repeatedly creating new taxa throughout the several billion years of natural history. Methodological naturalists, however, are unlikely to accept the kind of functional integrity proposed here, for I view the information contained in DNA as the product of intelligent design. For convenience, the hypothesis I advance may be labeled pre-programmed descent with modification (PPDM)."
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    Thaxton, Charles


    A New Design Argument

    "The new argument from design in biology and mathematics is not as well known as the one from astronomy and physics. Even so, it is perhaps more important. If the argument developed here can be shown to indicate a designer, then it may be used fairly as a basis for clarifying the vague impression on this point obtained in astronomy and physics. It is this new argument from design that I plan to focus on there."