Revelation

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    Bauckham, Richard J.

     (180K)

    The Role of the Spirit in the Apocalypse

    "The prominence of the Spirit is one of the characteristics which marks the Apocalypse out from the category of apocalyptic works in which its literary genre places it. The Spirit also plays an important role in the eschatological perspective of the book. The subject therefore merits some detailed study. We shall first consider the references to the Spirit in each of the three easily distinguishable categories into which they fall: the Spirit of vision, the Spirit of prophecy and the seven Spirits."
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    Charles, J. Daryl

     (760K)

    An Apocalyptic Tribute to the Lamb (Rev 5:1-14)

    "Revelation 5:1-14 represents a high point in the apocalyptic visions of John. A paradoxical figure appears at the throne of heaven: the Lamb. He embodies the notions of royal power and splendor--and yet, curiously, he also embodies priestly sacrifice and atonement. His actions in history (his violent death and rising) trigger a wave of worship and praise that spills over from the regionof the throne to the utmost limits of all creation."
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    Charles, J. Daryl

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    Imperial Pretensions and the Throne-Vision of the Lamb: Observations on the Function of Revelation 5

    "At the core of the Christians' dilemma in the first century was their refusal to adore the national gods and affirm Roman Imperial pretensions. Christian non-compliance in this regard constituted rebellion against the established order, at the center of which stood the emperor, hailed as Kyrios, 'Lord,' incarnate. Although conditions reflected up to the time of the writing of the Apocalypse suggest that Christians were not regularly martyred, the writer foresees an ominous development. At issue is a clash of two irreconcilable worldviews. At its core, the Apocalypse represents a challenge to the Roman principate. The all-encompassing machinery of the imperium Romanum is utterly bewitching to the world (Revelation 13 and 17), leaving none unaffected; it thus calls for a prophetic consciousness."
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    Heide, Gale Z.

     (178K)

    What Is New about the New Heaven and the New Earth? A Theology of Creation from Revelation 21 and 2 Peter 3

    "The message of hope answering the many cries for help throughout the centuries since Christ’s ascension finds perhaps its fullest expression in the words of Revelation 21. John’s vision of the new heaven and the new earth provided an escape for those enduring persecution for their commitment to Jesus. Though their life may end, they could hold fast to the knowledge that a better life awaited them at the fulfillment of God’s plan for this world."
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    Homcy, Stephen L.

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    'To Him Who Overcomes': A Fresh Look at What 'Victory' Means for the Believer According to the Book of Revelation

    "...[T]he book of Revelation was not written simply to inform believers about the victory of the Lamb. Revelation is not only an apocalyptic portrait of the Lamb’s triumph but also a prophetic exhortation for his followers to triumph in him. “To him who overcomes” is the refrain of Jesus himself in his exhortations to the churches. It is “he who overcomes” that will inherit the blessings of the Lamb’s victory (21:7). But what does Jesus mean by “overcome”? The overcoming or victorious life means diˆerent things to diˆerent Christians. What kind of victory does the book of Revelation prescribe for believers?"
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    Kistemaker, Simon J.

     (90K)

    The Temple in the Apocalypse

    "The term...'temple complex'...occurs frequently in the Gospels and Acts and once in Paul’s Epistles (1 Cor 9:13). The word...'holy of holies'... chiefly appears in John’s Apocalypse, a total of sixteen times. What is the meaning of the latter word in the context of Revelation? A preliminary look reveals that the author conveys its meaning as the very presence of God. To illustrate, the expression 'temple of God' appears three times (3:12; 11:1, 19), two of which (3:12 and 11:19) are in a celestial setting. Next, the saints in heaven who have come out of the great tribulation have washed their robes in the blood of the Lamb and serve God day and night in heaven (7:15). Third, angels are coming forth out of the temple (14:15, 17; 15:6); and John heard a loud voice coming out of the temple and from the throne (16:1, 17). This is the voice of God that proceeds from his very presence and sounds forth, away from the area of his throne. Last, John describes the new Jerusalem as a city without a temple, for the Lord God is its temple (21:22)."
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    Page, Sydney H. T.

     (756K)

    Revelation 20 and Pauline Eschatology

    "Our study of Revelation 20 in the light of Pauline eschatology has revealed many common motifs. To be sure the form in which the teaching of Revelation 20 is presented differs markedly from that used by Paul. Naturally John makes considerably greater use of apocalyptic language and symbolism than does Paul. Bearing in mind the unique literary genre of Revelation, however, and allowing for the use of distinctive imagery, it is possible to see a close correspondence between Revelation 20 and some of the major features of Paul's eschatological teaching...Insofar as the relevance of this to the debate about the millennium is concerned, it lends not inconsiderable support to the classic Augustinian position."
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    Revelation

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    Revelation - World English Bible (WEB)

    This is an open source version of the bible based on the 1901 ASV (American Standard Version). This document may be freely distributed, there is no copyright on this translation.
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    Smith, Christopher R.

     (59K)

    The Tribes of Revelation 7 and the Literary Competence of John the Seer

    "Richard Bauckham has recently offered some criticisms of my analysis of the 144,000 'sealed out of all the tribes of Israel' depicted in Rev 7:5–8. As others have by now begun to draw applications from my conclusions, I find it appropriate to reply briefly to some of the concerns Bauckham has raised...I... continue to advocate an approach to Revelation 7 that seeks to understand its distinctive features as the purposeful innovations of a skilled writer who not only had a master plan of oˆering Jewish- Christian reinterpretations of conventional Jewish images but also executed the plan successfully. I believe this approach will prove more profitable over time, particularly in dealing with such widely contested questions as the identity of the 144,000, than one in which recalcitrant details are accounted for by appeal to fortuitous slips of the hand or lapses of memory."
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    Warden, Duane

     (559K)

    Imperial Persecution and the Dating of 1 Peter and Revelation

    "The dating of 1 Peter is tied to questions of authorship. If the apostle Peter is the author, it is generally agreed that hte book must be dated by the late 60s...The concern of this article is with one narrow aspect of the methodology used in dating 1 Peter and Revelation. In the attempt to delineate the social context in which the readers lived, scholars frequently find points of comparison between the persecution setting of the books on the one hand and actions taken by Nero and Domitian to suppress Christianity on the other. The thesis of what follows is that a persecution of Christians by Domitian in Rome, even if such a thing happened, is essentially irrelevant for the dating of either 1 Peter or Revelation."
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    White, R. Rowler

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    On the Hermeneutics and Interpretation of Rev 20:1-3: A Preconsummationist Perspective

    "As the symposium A Case for Premillennialism: A New Consensus demonstrates, the interpretation of Rev 20:1–6 continues to influence significantly the premillennial exposition of biblical eschatology. Objections have been lodged against attributing such importance to the pervasively symbolic, hence less interpretively accessible, apocalyptic literature of Revelation. Premillennialists, however, have clung arduously to their views, arguing for the chronological progression of Revelation 19–20, the futurity of Satan’s imprisonment, the physicality of 'the first resurrection,' and the literalness of the 'one thousand year' duration of Christ’s post-second-advent interregnum. At the root of these claims is a more basic concern for hermeneutical consistency in the interpretation of the Bible’s apocalyptic and non-apocalyptic literature and of Rev 20:1–6 particularly."
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    Wiarda, Tim

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    Revelation 3:20: Imagery and Literary Context

    "Reflection on Biblical imagery is always a valuable exercise. This is particularly true in the case of an image heavily used in preaching and teaching, such as that contained in Rev 3:20. The present study will proceed with the concerns of expositors especially in view, offering three principal suggestions. (1) The most common understanding of the imagery of Rev 3:20— namely, that it pictures Jesus seeking entry into the human heart—can be modified and significantly enriched by reference to incidents in the ministry of Jesus that portray him receiving hospitality from a sinner (e.g. his entering the home of Zacchaeus). (2) The reality pictured by Jesus’ knocking includes as one of its elements a call to repentance. (3) Though originally addressed to a church, the form of Jesus’ words in Rev 3:20 suggests that he is stating a general truth that applies in other contexts as well. It is thus quite legitimate to present this verse as Jesus’ promise to those who are unsaved."
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    Wood, Darin M.

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    The Structure of the Apocalypse

    "...[A]n analysis of the Apocalypse’s structure demands a great deal of flexibility and adaptability in usage due to the complexity of the arguments and the invariable overlap. Furthermore, any discussion of the structure of the Apocalypse does not lend itself well to structure due to the complexity of arguments and the tenuous nature of the suggestions offered. However, the outline employed here attempts to delineate between those arguments that seek to ascertain structure based on the literary arrangement of the Apocalypse, such as an arrangement theory versus those that seek to employ a technical arrangement such as a thematic theory."
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    deSilva, David A.

     (264K)

    The Social Setting of the Revelation to John: Conflicts Within, Fears Without

    "The work of sociologists of religion has opened new vistas for inquiry into questions of NT introduction. The aim of this study is to explore how work in sociology of religion leads to clarification of the social dimensions of the Revelation to John, the Apocalypse. It particularly seeks to clarify the role of John with respect to the seven churches to which he addresses his work, hence his self-understanding as well, the social tensions between these church communities and the larger social communities around them, and the tensions within the church communities themselves. From this examination of John's role and the tensions expressed in Revelation, we shall attempt to understand the situation in sociological terms, and in the same terms examine John's agenda for the churches communicated through the Apocalypse."