Romans

  • File

    Dockery, David S.

     (216K)

    Romans 7:14-25: Pauline Tension in the Christian Life

    "The interpretation of Rom 7:14-25 has been problematic his- torically. Does the passage reflect Paul pre-conversion experience under the law? This was a major interpretation of the church fathers, or does this passage describe Paul’s tension in the Christian life? The latter position is defended here by an interpretation of the exegetical considerations and an examination of the theological implications."
  • File

    Garlington, D. B.

     (266K)

    The Obedience of Faith in the Letter to the Romans: Part III: The Obeidence of Christ and the Obeidence of the Christian

    "The investigation of the obedience of faith in Romans, commenced some three years ago, has thus far yielded two basic conclusions. (1) The phrase upakon pistews (Rom 1:5; 16:26) embodies a twin idea: the obedience consisting in faith and the obedience arising out of faith. (2) Faith's obedience, defined in the first instance as perseverance, is the link between present justification by faith and eschatological justification for the 'doers of the law' (Rom 2:13). We come now, in the concluding study, to consider the role of Christ, the obedient one, who ensures the obedience of his people. Our attention will be directed to Romans 5."
  • File

    Garlington, D. B.

     (188K)

    The Obedience of Faith in the Letter to the Romans: Part III(b): The Obeidence of Christ and the Obeidence of the Christian

    "...[I]t was proposed that it is the obedience of faith, defined primarily as perseverance, which forms the link between present justification by faith and future judgment according to works. Romans 5, however, provides the most vital link of all— Christ. 'In Paul's view,' writes M. D. Hooker, 'Christians owe everything to the fact that they are in Christ: they are nothing and they have nothing, except by virtue of being in him. Christian faith is always the response to what God has done in Christ and to what Christ is. It seems, then, that they need the faithfulness of Christ—for how are they to have even faith, except by sharing in his?' The bottom line, therefore, is Christ."
  • File

    Garlington, D. B.

     (250K)

    The Obedience of Faith in the Letter to the Romans: Part I: The Meaning of upakon pistews (Rom 1:5; 16:26)

    "In light of its significance for Romans,...'the obedience of faith' is a phrase of no little importance for understanding the Pauline mission as a whole, both in its universal outreach and its ethical dimensions. Nevertheless because its precise meaning remains a debating ground for commentators on Romans, this first article will be devoted to an exegetical exploration of the meaning of Paul’s singular phrase within the setting of his most famous missionary epistle."
  • File

    Garlington, D. B.

     (280K)

    The Obedience of Faith in the Letter to the Romans: Part II: The Obeidence of Faith and Judgment by Works

    "The previous study of the obedience of faith in Romans was an attempt to determine exegetically the meaning of Paul’s unique phrase upakon pistews. It was concluded that the phrase is deliberately ambiguous, denoting simultaneously the obedience which is faith and the obedience which is the product of faith. Because of its essentially two-sided character, it was suggested that the notion of faith’s obedience provides the link between present justification by faith alone and future judgment according to works. Since faith, obedience, and judgment generally in Paul are such well-worn territory,1 the scope of this article is restricted to an examination of the relation of the obedience of faith to final vindication (justification) in the day of judgment."
  • File

    Lamp, Jeffrey S.

     (145K)

    Paul, the Law, Jews, and Gentiles: A Contextual and Exegetical Reading of Romans 2:12-16

    "The passage under investigation, Rom 2:12–16, addresses the Jew/non-Jew relationship from the perspective of that which is integral in defining the essence of being Jewish: the place of the Law in God’s dealings with Jews and Gentiles. The passage raises several important questions. What is the relationship of the Law to Gentiles? Is there a 'natural law' that is the Gentile equivalent to the Jewish Law? How is 'conscience' implicated in the argument? Can Gentiles receive salvation through obedience to this natural law in the same manner in which the Jews were thought to be able to be saved through their Law? Is Paul’s argumentation in 2:12–16 a 'flat contradiction' to the position articulated in 3:9 and 20? This essay will investigate these and related questions."
  • File

    Longacre, Robert E.

     (123K)

    Soteriology and Eschatology in Romans

    "What type of discourse is Paul’s epistle to the Romans? The grand presentation of justification by faith that occupies chaps. 1–5 is not simply exposition but is clearly meant to be persuasive. Chapters 9–11 resemble exposition, but even here Paul is trying not merely to work through a problem. He urges onto Gentile believers the right attitude toward unbelieving Jews. Above all, this section contains elements that lead us to classify it as a predictive discourse. Further sections of the book are clearly hortatory. While persuasive discourse tries to influence our beliefs and values, and while expository discourse is a kind of problem solving, hortatory discourse sets out to modify conduct. Working our way through the various discourse types that are embraced in Romans reveals the purpose and structure of the book, where the various discourse types systematically relate to each other and are not simply a mélange."
  • File

    Longenecker, Richard N.

     (563K)

    The "Faith of Abraham" Theme in Paul, James and Hebrews: A Study in the Circumstantial Nature of New Testament Teaching

    "The theme of the faith of Abraham is employed by three different NT writers in three quite different ways: by Paul in Galatians 3 and Romans 4, by James in chap. 2, and by the writer to the Hebrews in chap. 11. What I would like to do here is to focus attention on the varied treatments of this theme in the NT, spelling out its circumstantial employment and suggesting some implications that can be drawn for our understanding of the Christian message and for our Christian ministries today. By 'circumstantial' I do not mean to suggest 'incidental,' 'inferential' or 'unessential,' as the word sometimes connotes. Rather, I have in mind 'that which relates to and is dependent upon the circumstances for its specific thrust and form.'"
  • File

    Merkle, Ben L.

     (123K)

    Romans 11 and the Future of Ethnic Israel

    "The final destiny of ethnic Israel is both a sensitive and important topic. It is sensitive, because it involves real people and real outcomes. It is important, because it involves God’s promises and God’s integrity. In Romans 11, we find Paul’s clearest description of the final destiny of Israel. It is the contention of this author, however, that many who read Romans 11 read into the text a future mass conversion of ethnic Israel. In this paper I will seek to demonstrate that Romans 11, and in particular Rom 11:26, does not teach a future mass conversion of ethnic Israel, but rather that there will always be a remnant of believing Jews until the end of time. After briefly reviewing the three main interpretations of the phrase 'all Israel will be saved,' I will then examine the reasons why 'all Israel' refers to the elect ethnic Jews throughout history. Finally, I will answer some possible objections to this view."
  • File

    Morris, Leon

     (458K)

    The Theme of Romans

    "The whole Bible is a book about God. We tend to think that Romans in this respect is just like any book in scripture. The point I have been concerned to make in this essay is that it is not. God comes more prominently before us in Romans than in any other part of the New Testament (with the possible exception of 1 John). Elsewhere Paul dwells on Christ and what Christ has done for men. This theme is not absent from Romans; but as long as we concentrate on it to the overlooking of the stress on God, we do not get quite what Paul is saying to us. Romans is a book about God and we must bear the fact in mind in all our interpretation of what it says."
  • File

    Rapinchuk, Mark

     (144K)

    Universal Sin and Salvation in Romans 5:12-21

    "In reading the provocative words of Paul found in Rom 5:12–21 (especially vv. 12, 18–19), one cannot help but wonder if the standard reading of this section reads too much into the passage. Have interpreters gone oˆ the path by reading this as an exposition on the concept of original or inherited sin? Not only might one question whether this is Paul’s intention and main point, it might be asked if this concept is in view at all. The following essay suggest that such an understanding leads to unacceptable conclusions. If the present passage is read as an explicit statement about inherited sin (on the basis of 5:12, 18), then consistency would seem to require that it also be read as an explicit statement of Universalism."
  • File

    Reid, Marty L.

     (107K)

    A Consideration of the Function of Rom 1:8-15 in Light of Greco-Roman Rhetoric

    "In spite of the immense amount of scholarly discussion, why Paul wrote Romans remains a perplexing issue...According to Barrett’s exegesis, Rom 1:8–15 has no real interpretive significance for understanding the letter...The purpose of this study is to reexamine the problem by considering the rhetorical function of Rom 1:8–15. The analysis seeks to demonstrate how this text, as a well-crafted rhetorical unit, introduces the basic purpose of the argument."
  • File

    Romans

     (153K)

    Romans - World English Bible (WEB)

    This is an open source version of the bible based on the 1901 ASV (American Standard Version). This document may be freely distributed, there is no copyright on this translation.
  • File

    Schreiner, Thomas R.

     (239K)

    Paul's View of the Law in Romans 10:4-5

    "Two difficult verses for understanding Paul's view of the law are Rom 10:4-5. Rom 10:4, for example, has often been used to posit an absolute discontinuity between law and gospel since Paul says here that 'Christ is the end of the law.' Others, however, claim that to read such discontinuity into the verse is unwarranted, and they argue that Paul is asserting that 'Christ is the goal of the law.'"
  • File

    Young, Richard Alan

     (125K)

    The Knowledge of God in Romans 1:18-23: Exegetical and Theological Reflections

    "In Rom 1:18–23 Paul says that all humans stand under the judgment of God because they have forsaken God and worshiped idols. His argument presupposes that somehow they had acquired a knowledge of God for which they are held accountable. This poses several questions. How do humans have this knowledge? When do they have it? And what precisely is this knowledge? The problems are compounded by human sinfulness and divine mystery. How can finite, sinful humanity come to know the infinite, holy God?...Three responses have been offered...None of the three views can be established with absolute certainty, since each encounters its own set of difficulties. The purpose of this essay is to help bring unthematic awareness back into the conversation as a plausible option."