Why Were Dangerous Animals Created?"Nature is filled with many examples of violent and ferocious creatures. Many Christians cannot imagine that God would create such things in an unspoiled, 'very good' world. To explain their existence, some Christians hold to a view that demons created such things, while other Christians hold to a view that all such things were created as a response to human sin. The latter view typically entails belief in a recent creation. I argue that violent and dangerous creatures are affirmed as good creations of God in the Bible, and discuss the biblical rationale for their creation."
Psychism, Free Will, and Chance: Interrelationships and Problems"In a non-materialistic Weltanschauung, consideration of material indeterminacy takes on important meanings, making for a better understanding of the relationship between mind and matter and of the theological problem of pain as the high but necessary price that sentient subjects, also endowed with free will, are called upon to pay for their existence. Difficulties are encountered, however, in explaining chance and, in any coherent approach to the roots of indeterminacy, it would appear that to some extent we need to abandon the principle of sufficient reason. One possible way of overcoming this difficulty is proposed in this paper."
Harmony and Beauty, Disease and Suffering: Indeterminacy a Necessary Condition for Free Will"The order and harmony of the universe could be much more easily reconciled with the iniquity of nature (incomprehensible natural calamities) if we were to accept without thought that the universe is accidental and not something responding to a deliberate creative project. The exercise of free will, however, is possible only in the presence of a certain measure of indeterminacy, and this necessarily entails the possibility of unpredictable disaster. It follows, then, in the light of the Anthropic Principle, that, if man is to exist as a subject endowed with free will, the iniquity of nature, pain and suffering must also exist. The latter, it will be argued, are profoundly related to free will, not only because they may stem from an evil use of it, but also because they are the sine qua non for its very existence."