Use of the Old Testament

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    Blomberg, Craig L.

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    Interpreting Old Testament Prophetic Literature in Matthew: Double Fulfillment

    "My previous research on Matthew has suggested that a particular OT prophetic text cited by Matthew often points both to and beyond its immediate historic context, without necessarily affirming all that the gospel writer or the individuals he quotes maintains. This phenomenon, which I am provisionally entitling 'double fulfillment' emerges particularly prominently in Isaiah. Inasmuch as I know of only one recent study on 'Matthew and Isaiah' per se, it seems unlikely that this essay will prove too redundant."
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    Bock, Darell L.

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    Evangelicals and the Use of the Old Testament in the New: Part I

    "For evangelicals, whose distinctive characteristic is their com- mitment to a high view of Scripture, perhaps no hermeneutical area engenders more discussion than the relationship between the Testaments. Within this discussion, a particularly important issue is the use made of the Old Testament by the New Testament. For evangelicals this issue is of high importance since both Christological claims and theories of biblical inspiration are tied to the conclusions made about how the phenomena of these passages are related to one another."
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    Bock, Darrell L.

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    Evangelicals and the Use of the Old Testament in the New: Part II

    "In a previous article1 this writer discussed four schools of approach within evangelicalism with regard to the use of the Old Testament by the New. In the interaction between these schools of thought four tension points will be raised in this article concerning dual authorship, language-referent, the progress of revelation, and the problem of the differing texts used in Old Testament citations by their New Testament fulfillment(s)."
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    Dodd, C. H.

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    The Old Testament in the New

    "I have here only hinted at the significance for Christian theology of a right understanding of the treatment of the Old Testament in the New. I believe it represents an intellectual achievement of remarkable originality, displaying penetration into the meaning. that lies beneath the surface of the biblical text, and a power of synthesis which gathers apparently disparate elements into a many-sided whole, not unsuitable to convey some idea of the ‘manifold wisdom of God’."
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    Ellis, E. Earle

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    Jesus’ Use of the Old Testament and the Genesis of New Testament Theology

    "The place of the OT in early Christian thought will depend on its significance (1) in the word and works of Jesus, (2) in the composition of the four gospels, and (3) of other early Christian literature, which for all practical purposes means our NT. It would be enhanced if one could identify (4) certain dominical teachings from the OT that were taken up in Acts and in the letters of the apostolic missions."
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    Evans, Craig A.

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    Introduction to From Prophecy to Testament: The Function of the Old Testament in the New

    "Most of the numerous books and studies that have appeared in the last forty years have driven home this point: The theology of the NT is fundamentally indebted to, and a reflection of, major OT themes, images, and language. There is simply no significant element in NT theology that is not in some way a development of a tradition or theology expressed in the sacred writings that eventually came to be what Christians call the Old Testament (OT), Jews call the Tanakh, and scholars call the Hebrew Bible (HB)."
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    Litwak, Kenneth D.

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    The Use of Quotations from Isaiah 52:13-53:12 in the New Testament

    "The question of the use of the OT in the NT requires a many-faceted answer. One cannot give a simple, straightforward reply. The answer depends on the writer, even the specific passage. One writer can use quotations from the same OT passage in different ways in varying contexts. The use of quotations from Isaiah 53 can be studied in several ways. The citations can be separated according to the hermeneutic behind them, whether it be pesher, midrash or allegory, to name three. Or quotations can be divided between Septuagintal and non-Septuagintal text-forms. A third alternative, adopted here, is to treat quotations from the fourth Servant song according to their function in their NT context."
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    Miller, Glenn

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    Did the Messianic Jewish Believers Use the OT Deceitfully or Ignorantly in the New Testament?

    "...[T]he early Jewish Christians were altogether unoriginal and 'uncreative' (almost boring) in their exegesis and use of scripture! Other groups within pre-Christian and even early post-NT Judaism were much more creative with the OT: the Rabbi's with their midrash, the Qumran-ites with their 'near' eschatology, the Hellenistic Jews (e.g. Philo) with their allegorizing, and the various authors of the Pseudepigraphical works with their pseudonymity."
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    Nickelsburg, George W.

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    Reading the Hebrew Scriptures in the First Century: Christian Interpretations in Their Jewish Context

    "It is a commonplace among Christians that the authors of the New Testament understood and interpreted the ancient Scriptures of Israel primarily in the categories of promise and fulfillment. Most of us have been brought up with this viewpoint and schooled in it, and we emphasize it in our teaching and preaching and in the liturgy...As is often the case, the commonplace reflects a basic truth, but it oversimplifies and obscures a more complex state of affairs. First century Christians did believe that in Jesus of Nazareth, God was keeping ancient promises and fulfilling past prophecies. Nonetheless, these early Christians read their Scriptures in other keys, and they saw a variety of relationships between the events of their time and the subject matter of the Scriptures...I shall survey some types of New Testament interpretation of the Hebrew Scriptures, noting how these interpretations stand in continuity and discontinuity with contemporary Jewish interpretations."
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    Smith, Gary V.

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    Paul's Use of Psalm 68:18 in Ephesians 4:8

    "The use of the Old Testament by the New Testament writers continues to be one of the most difficult areas in the field of hermeneutics. Theological overtones of Messianic interpretations frequently make this area of exegesis problematic for those who seek to follow the grammatical-historical method of interpretation. Many of these problems of interpretation are due to an inability to understand the methods of exegesis used in the New Testament...In the present discussion of Paul's hermeneutical principles, we shall look at: (a) the problems raised by Paul's use of Psalm 68:18 in Ephesians 4:8; (b) the meaning of Psalm 68:18; and (c) the exegetical principles used by Paul when quoting Psalm 68:18."
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    Tenney, Merrill C.

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    III. Literary Keys to the Fourth Gospel: The Old Testament and the Fourth Gospel

    "The exact number of references to the Old Testament in John is debatable, for it is occasionally difficult to determine what is a reference and what is not. Some are direct citations; many are indisputably quotations or clear allusions; but in other instances the language is general, or else is so indefinite that one cannot be sure of the exact source. In at least one case a text is attributed to Scripture which cannot be precisely located (John 7:38). The purpose of this study is not to identify and expound each text presumably taken from the Old Testament, but to discuss the influence of the Hebrew Bible on the teaching of John."